Here, we note that total potential energy does not have 0 when general matter comes under 60% of dark matter.
Fine tuning problem and inflation mechanismPair creation of negative mass and positive mass seems to provide the proper explanation of homogeneity, local non-homogeneity, and flatness of our universe without separate assumption with basic characteristics of Newton dynamics.With reference to the flatness of universe, the calculation of cosmic critical density with previous positive mass leads to the problem that present density should be close to critical density, the cosmic density at the beginning should be close to critical density, and initial condition should be set delicately.However, according to the hypothesis of negative mass, potential energy of universe is not single potential when there is only positive mass(potential that has both + and -), and the density of universe close to critical density was from basic mechanism of pair creation, namely 1:1 correspondence of negative mass to positive mass, and form of potential energy.5-2) Inflation mechanism- Inflation start -If we consider that inflation started at the point of time that there were large-scale pair creations of negative mass and positive mass after Big Bang, not at the point of time that the gravity was separated, the number of positive mass and negative mass might be born together at this time, so here also the term of positive potential energy by equation (72)(nU_+(if pair creations are , survives), and this can provide the start power of inflation. — Inflation finish -If positive mass is converted to radiant energy(pair annihilation of matter and antimatter, radiation) or energy when strong interaction(Some mass changed to the bond energy. Related Discussions:Dark Matter and Dark energyWhat came first matter or dark matter?What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?DARK SCEIENCEdark matterA hypothesis regarding dark matterDark Energy and Negative EnergyA connection Between Space-time and Dark matter/Energydark matter vs dark energyDark energy, Dark matter, Fine tuning problem,Negative mass! That cause accelerates expansion of universe(Bigbang or Inflation).Strong interaction, weak interaction and electromagnetic force are separate(some mass change to the bond energy) and also antimatter and matter generate pair annihilation in during inflation. The other side, U_max(positive maximum potential energy by negative mass and positive mass) has a nU.So, if n = 10^80It is correspond with the ratio of flatness. is that the upper limit of total potential energy.fig16caption : Changes in universe’s potential energy over time- Fine tuning problem of mass density -The reason of that mass density of universe close to critical mass density.About the fine tuning of mass density in the early universe, even though the mass density of present universe is equally same with the value of critical mass density, when negative mass and positive mass coexist, it doesn’t mean that the density of early universe must be very close with the value of critical density.And also because negative and positive mass’s rate is going close to 1, that present universe is almost at the same with critical density values.The mass density of universe close to critical mass densitywas from basic mechanism of pair creation, namely 1:1 correspondence of negative mass to positive mass, and form of potential energy.In fig.16, negative and positive mass created n pairs, and in this period that potential energy values in . However, in case of negative mass(minus mass), stable equilibrium is a point of maximum value, not a point of minimum value.
We call this time by .According to hypothesis with negative mass, The last state of universe is when positive mass and negative mass almost the same and potential energy has the value of at this time.- Phase transition problem of dark energy -The reason of that dark energy have a very big positive value(Inflation Energy) in early universe and very small positive value(Cosmological Constant) at now.This value is strong power that can generate inflation in early universe. Because that dark energy is gravitational potential energy(eq.(80)) of universe and then total potential energy has positive value at now.Reference-3==================Other process, total potential energy term by 2n general particles, has a U. Then total potential energy become negative value(result of V-1, fig.9). If = 1.61624 X , = m, also It is very important.
Therefore we call this time (inflation finish time)As the universe is getting cooler, the radiation is getting lower and that radiation changed the matter with positive mass. V-5. So most of positive matter became radiation. Because that explain dark energy that very big positive value(Inflation Energy) in early universe and very small positive value(Cosmological Constant) at now. — The future of universe — =================Hypothesis of Dark Matter and Dark Energy with Negative Mass :http://vixra.org/abs/0907.0015 Dark matter and dark energy come from one origin3-1) Negative mass has observed, but it was trashed awayIn 1998 year, observation by HSS(The High-z Supernova Search team) team and SCP team(Supernova Cosmology Project team), I have seen a calculation that if the cosmological constant is 0,It means that they got a negative mass density from inspected field equation during 70years.HSS team paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805201 :14P 26, 29 linesHowever, HSS team and SCP team have asserted that cosmological constant must be revival. Because must not be negative value in they thought.They did not know that negative mass is stable at the maximum point!In case of negative mass, ground state is a point that energy is the highest. Therefore, positive mass defect has come.), weak interaction, and electromagnetic force are separated after the start of inflation, the number of positive mass falls down below critical ratio which total potential energy is 0 in (V-1.), so at this time, inflation also is naturally finished.Reference-1===========Potential energy when there are generally n pairs of negative mass and positive mass :If n pairs of negative mass and positive mass are created, generally the number of term of positive potential energy is n^2, the number of term of negative potential energy is n(n-1), so the number of term of positive potential energy is greater than that of term of negative potential energy by n. So negative mass is toward a point of maximum value to be stable.In the world of positive mass, ground state is a point that energy is low, but in case of negative mass, ground state is a point that energy is the highest. And after values of positive mass became the critical ratio of negative mass, that potential energy becomes zero. Accordingly, in the world of negative mass, energy level is filled from the highest to the lowest, and stable state means the highest energy state, so the catastrophe to energy level of minus infinity never happens even if negative mass spontaneously emits energy. =========If the proof above is right, please read another section of the article.Hypothesis of Dark Matter and Dark Energy with Negative Mass :http://vixra.org/abs/0907.0015—Icarus2 Accordingly, even if the absolute value of negative mass is the same as that of positive mass at the beginning of universe, the universe has the value of positive potential energy, and expands.===========Reference-2===========Calculate the value of , with equation (79 ) when there is a difference in the number between negative mass and positive mass to examine changes,We can see the change in total potential energy in accordance with the difference in the number of negative mass and positive mass from 10 samples above.fig09caption : Potential energy from ratio of negative mass and positive mass- The tendency of total potential energy in accordance with the number of negative mass and positive mass -i)In Critical ratio of the number of negative mass to the number of positive mass, the total potential energy has 0. —> When the universe is flat. (ex.
Accordingly, in the world of negative mass, energy level is filled from the highest to the lowest, and stable state means the highest energy state, so the catastrophe to energy level of minus infinity never happens even if negative mass spontaneously emits energy.(Refer to II-3)We must to know that not the equation(Einstein’s Field Equation) has disposed the value, but our thought disposed that value.Einstein said that cosmological constant was my biggest mistake, because it was inserted artificially.In hypothesis with negative mass, = positive mass( x ) + negative mass( (1~5.1) x ) + (negative mass positive mass, cosmological constant Λ = 0 )We assume over 50% of the dark matter as negative mass.3-2) Age of universeIf cosmological constant Λ=0 and mass density of universe is negative value Ω_M = -0.38, to get the age of the universe.From Friedmann equation,, ,Use to =1.38 , km/s/Mpc, h=0.701define to ,This value is approach to the t=13.73 Gyr calculated in a WMAP.(+3.6% large) considering the very large changes(Λ=0 and ; Λ is a coefficient of ), it seems to increase existence probability of negative mass.Additionally, if , we get the =14.927 GyrUniverse’ age by other methodRadioactive decay method : 15.2 2.1Gyr,HR diagram(Hertzsprung-Russel diagram):13.2 2Gyr,The arithmetic mean of two methods is 14.2 2.05So, it(14.225Gyr from negative mass density) is in the range estimated by other observations.==============Lets arrange!HSS team and SCP team had observed our universe, however they got a negative mass density from field equation.They are very confused. Here, we note that total potential energy does not have 0 when general matter comes under 60% of dark matter. 60% is the proportion by assuming that all terms of potential energy are identical, and prescribing that the number of is 10.ii)If number of positive mass less than critical number, total potential energy has negative value. —> Cosmic decelerating expansioniii)If number of positive mass over than criticle number, total potential energy has positive value. —> Cosmic accelerating expansioniv)The value of total potential energy increases as the number of positive mass approaches to the number of negative mass.v)If the number of pair of negative mass and positive mass is n, n terms of positive potential remains as shown in equation (72)(). —> Final the best custom essays
state of universe. ===========5-3) Fine tuning problem of mass density and cosmological constantUniverse mass density is same critical mass density, that is correspond with total potential energy=0 I can’t seek exactly solution for total potential energy equation.So I consider that these three potential can be the same U, and I will seek to the whole tendency.Maybe, consider of uniformly distribution, it is near to stable state when three value of potential energy are almost in same level.Define, , if Equation(79) isIf x=y=n, If, = y , at most the section,Total potential energy is proportion square term of negative mass number(similar positive mass number)Divide by equation(105 ),Ratio of potential size — Cosmological constant problem -The reason of that cosmological constant has a small and non-zero value. is total number of negative mass.
If is , we can know how the present potential values are smaller than the absolute value of minimum potential values of universe, how this present potential value is close to zero.It is means that present dark energy(cosmological constant) has a small positive value. But roll of this value is very smaller than inflation period in the growth universe(mean distance r is very bigger than initial mean distance and because of our universe have positive potential energy, so it’s doing expansion now.